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10 décembre 2009 4 10 /12 /décembre /2009 17:00
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And this is how it all began... Around the 9th Century, for reasons unknown, thousands of inhabitants of the northwestern part of India began to emigrate west. They set out from the territories now known as the Punjab and Pakistan. In Persia they split, and some travelled via Palestine, Egypt and Morocco and through the Strait of Gibraltar, finally arriving, known already as Gypsies, in the south of Moorish Spain. In this region, previously known as Al-Andalus, various cultures co-existed for hundreds of years. That was perhaps the only place where Gypsies, Jews, Christians and Muslims lived peacefully together for a many years. Each group had its own customs, music's and instruments. After many years, in the beginning of the 19th Century, due to mutual influences and the mingling of their musical expressions, a mysterious and expressive type of music emerged. Today, it is know as Flamenco. The Middle East, specifically India, was a cradle of the culture and language of most of Europe. Inhabitants of its northern regions together with Egypt, Mesopotamia, and China constituted the oldest civilizations in the world. It was there, in the Indus river valley, where the first religions, first laws and first instruments and musical notations appeared. The oldest record, written in India around 2000 BC, sets out mantras chanted to honour their gods. Based upon one, two or three notes, these chants were over time transformed into a heptatonic scale. The seven-note scale, already popular in 350 BC, was written as Sa, Re, Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha, Ni, and remains in this form today. Somewhere between the Second and Fifth Centuries the first book devoted to the art was written. It was called Bharata Natya Shastra. It contained a detailed description of vocal, dance and instrumental music. According to this book, Indian music is based on raga, that is a sequence of at least five notes of one scale. A melody governed by raga is performed according to specific principles and with a certain mood. In the Sixth Century canons for music and art were established. This gave rise to the development of classical Indian music, which was based upon the system of ragas and rhythms accompanying them. To this day, they remain unchanged. This musical culture also influenced other countries. Indian Brahmins introduced it to Persia and Arabia, and from there it was disseminated through the West. Simultaneously, Arab music entered Andalusia, than ruled by the Moors. The first monarch of Al-Andalus, Abd ar-Rahman I, invited to his court Arab musicians, who brought poetry, songs, musicians and musical instruments. In 822 a poet and singer came from Baghdad to Cordoba. His name was Abu al-Hasan Alî ibn Nafi and he was known as Zyryab (black bird). This extremely talented man played a key role in the musical education of the whole of Al-Andalus establishing an academy in which numerous musicians were trained. He introduced an Arab-Persian system of musical notation and improved the Arabian oud, which became a prototype of the contemporary guitar. Many years later musical development in India reached its peak. The great poet, musician and expert in Indian, Persian and Arab music, Amir Khushro (1254 - 1324) became a minister of a Mughal sultan. What he did for Indian music was unequalled by anything done before or after his time. He introduced many ragas and rhythms and, above all, he created two new instruments, which today is the basis of Indian music: the sitar and tabla. Banished from their native country these Indians wandered slowly further west, absorbing facets of the cultures of the countries through which they passed. When they reached Spain they were no longer the same people. Although they looked similar, in terms of culture, language, customs as well as music they had considerably changed. Unfortunately, they did not record their music; we do not know how it sounded, or how much of it has survived. And do not know what mark it has left, if any, on the flamenco and which of its elements are rooted in India and which in Andalusia. But even if both these fascinating genres cannot be proved to be closely related, listening their emotionality, expression, rhythm, depth and sensitivity must convince the listener that related they must be. Text by Miguel Czachowski
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<br /> MERC!iCREM<br /> <br /> <br />
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L
<br /> hello d'abord merci pour ces multiples surprises ... super travail !<br /> pourriez vous reposter le lien, ce guitariste à l'air énooorme. danke shône<br /> <br /> <br />
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D
<br /> RE UP<br /> OK<br /> 12/02/2010<br /> Thanks see you sound !!!*=*!!!!<br /> <br /> <br />